One unforeseen circumstance that can dramatically effect estate planning for grandparents is when a child goes through a divorce or has died. Goals can quickly change (God forbid) when this scenario occurs, especially when it comes to visitation with their grandchildren. It seems unfortunate that grandparents would have to go to court just to see their grandchildren, but sometimes grandparents are forced to consider their options.
Under Mo. Rev. Stat. §452.402 (RSMo Supp., 2011), the court may grant grandparent reasonable visitation with their grandchild under the following circumstances:
1. When the parents of a child are filing for divorce, grandparents are able to file a Motion to Intervene to request a reasonable period of visitation from the Court or file to modify an existing order;
2. When the parent of a child is deceased, and the surviving parent denies the decedent’s parent reasonable visitation with the child; or
3. If the child resided with the grandparent for a minimum of six months within the two years from the filing of the petition, and if the grandparent has been denied visitation with the child for at least 90 days.
A common assumption has existed over time that grandparents have little to no chance of being awarded visitation with their grandchildren. This assumption is not necessarily true. It is presumed that parents living together know what is in their child’s best interests, but this is a “rebuttable presumption,” meaning that the burden of proof is on the grandparents to prove that granting them visitation is in the child’s best interest.
How do grandparents show that reasonable visitation it is in the child’s best interests? The answer is complex and fact specific. However, generally speaking, Missouri statutes allow the court to appoint guardian ad litem, order a home study or consult with the child in order to determine the child’s best interests. The court may consider several factors in determining the best interest of the child. Additionally, the court may conduct a further analysis to make this decision, including talking to the child about his or her own wishes.
In many cases, grandparents are a valuable part of a child’s life. While the parents of the child do generally have primary rights to the child, grandparents are place into a difficult situation if an unexpected divorce or death happens. Grandparents do have legal options to consider in certain circumstances. It is always preferable for the relationship to stay outside of the court room. However, grandparents sometimes may not have any other choice but to involve the courts.